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Video Games History

The video games history goes back to 1940s when Thomas Goldsmith invented the cathode ray amusement device. Video games however weren’t so popular until 1980s when video gaming consoles and video games were commercially available. From that time onward, video games have engulfed the teenagers decades after decades.

In 1950 Charles Adama created a program called “Bouncing Ball” for MIT’s whirlwind system. Although this program didn’t gain popularity but it was a signal that video games were just round the corner. In 1951, Ralph Baer while working on developing T.V technologies suggested the idea of human interaction with the T.V to manipulate what was projected on it. He suggested that it can be achieved to using patterns and lights and hence developed a game called “chase” in which two dots would chase each other on a T.V screen. Ralph presented the idea to his boss, who quickly squashed it. A couple of years later Ralph succeeded in turning his absurd idea of human manipulation of what’s seen on T.V by inventing the first ever game console in the video games history, “Brown Box”.

In 1952 a scientist named A.S. Douglas created graphical version of Tic Tac-Toe’s to demonstrate this thesis on human-computer interaction. This is regarded as the first ever graphical game in the video game history. In 1958 William Hinginbotham created a game called “Tennis for Two” by using oscilloscope and analog computer. In a simple tennis court a line acted as a net. Two box shaped remote controllers with knobs to control the trajectory of the ball were needed to play the game. The game got dismantled in 1959 however the video games history doesn’t end here.

Most of the video games developed till 1960’s were developed by students and used to run on the mainframes of their respective universities. However in 1961 a student group lead by Steve Russle developed “Spacewar”. The players would control space crafts with missile firing capabilities and center stars acted as hurdles for space crafts. This was the first game in the video games history which allowed two players to compete against each other on a PDP-1 computer. Only one PDP-1 computer is operation today and it is at the computer history museum California. Spacewar is also operational there. Spacewar led to the creation of many other similar games after that and it won’t be wrong if we call it the grandfather of all the modern games that we play today.

History of Online Games

The gaming industry has evolved quiet dramatically in the last couple of decades years. With the advancement in internet technology the developers are also keeping pace to come out with immersive and realistic internet entertainment. The craze of online gaming has engulfed the attention of youngsters’ big time but the history of online games actually dates back to the time when not every one had access to the internet.

If you attempt to have a closer look into the history of online games, you might be taken back to the time when gaming was the new craze among teenagers. It was back in early 1970s when the very first games were developed to be played on computer networks using the multi-user time share terminal. The same decade saw multi-user dungeons (MUD) and multi-access dungeons (MAD) making there way to the online gaming world. They later evolved in to multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPG)

1980s saw the very first games that used internet protocol (IP) to carry out the communication over the gaming servers. In year 1991 the AOL subscribers were presented with a game called Neverwinter Nights. It is regarded as the very first 3D graphical multiplayer online role playing game. The online gaming industry really blossomed after 1995 when National Space Foundation removed the restrictions on the internet which gave access to the whole internet domain. The internet now started to reach the homes of general public and the gaming world saw a number of strategic, shooting, fighting and role playing online games with multi-player capabilities emerging to the scene A few popular ones are Quake, Doom, Warcraft and Grand Theft Auto (generateur GTA 5 online for french version).

As the trend for online games grew most of the commercial games started to feature the online playing capability. By 2000, although most of the popular games featured the multiplayer action, the developers quickly took advantage of internet advancements like JavaScript and Flash to develop single player online games too.

In the year 2002 we saw the emergence of gaming networks such as Steam and Xbox Live. The social networks on the other hand also kept growing in popularity. Seeing this immense popularity of social networks Zynga developed casual games that could be played on these networks. Today the online gaming options are not limited just to commercial packages and social networks, browser based online games and mobile apps also feature the network gaming options.

The history of online games tells us how these marvels were put into concepts therefore everyone who loves to play online games should be aware of its history too.

Ancient Roman Coins and Money

The ancient Rome coins played a pivotal role in the economic exchange during the ancient Roman commerce. The ancient Roman coins were used from the middle of the third century B.C. to the middle of the third century A.D.

The ancient Roman currency comprised of the coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius and the dupondius (bronze). These coins were popularly known as the Roman provincial coins.

During the third century, certain monetary reforms took place which led to the genesis of denominations. For instance, as a consequence of such fiscal amendments, denominations like the argenteus (silver) and the follis (silvered bronze). After these reforms, the ancient Roman coinage consisted of mainly of the gold solidus and small bronze denominations.

The ancient Roman coins had intrinsic value. Though the coins were composed of precious metals, yet the value of the coin was higher than its precious metal content. A guesstimate of the value of the denarious ranges from 1.6 to 2.85 times its metal composition.

Basically, not all the coins that circulated in the primeval Roman times were composed of precious metal content because it was inconvenient and practically infeasible for everyday purchase and exchange. A dichotomy existed between the coins having an intrinsic value and those with only the token value.

The ancient Roman Empire envisaged a division in the authority of minting coins of particular metals. Several local authorities were permitted to mint only bronze coins and were unauthorized to mint silver currency.

Besides, contributing towards the economic aspect, the ancient Roman coinage also played an integral part towards conveying an idea by way of imagery or inscriptions on the minted coins. The interpretation of imagery on the coins was purely subjective, and was limited in diversity, confining the inscriptions to that of the Roman state only.

The onus of deciding which imagery was to be inscribed on the coin was vested in a committee of tresviri monetales (‘trio of money men’) and young statesmen who aspired to be senators.

The imagery on coins notched up an important step when Julius Caesar issued coins having his portrait inscribed on them. Caesar’s seminal coinage featured a living individual’s image which became a legal trend in 44 B.C. However with the transition in the reign of Roman Emperors in due course of time the ancient Roman coinage history also took a different course.